Sunday, August 14, 2005

رابطه خلج- قشقائي

ايل تركي فارسيمدان٬ از اتحاديه طوائف تركان آذربايجاني جنوب ايران قشقائي

The Farsimadan claim that they are of Khalaj origin, and that, before moving to southern Persia, they dwelled in Khalajestan

FARSIMADAN, one of the most important tribes of the Qashqai tribal confederacy. The popular explanation of the name is that it is a mispronunciation of Farsinadan (Those who do not know Persian) or Farsimidan (Those who know Persian; Magee, p. 54). The Farsimadan claim that they are of Khalaj origin, and that, before moving to southern Persia, they dwelled in Khalajestan, a region southwest of Tehran (Magee, p. 54; Garrod, p. 294). They also believe that the tribe spent some time in the Kuhgiluya before ending up in the province of Fars (Magee, p. 54). In any case, the tribe was already in Fars by the late 16th century, for it is known that in the month of Dhu'l-hejja 998/October 1590 their leader, Abu'l-Qasem Beyg and some of his followers were punished for having sided with Yaqub Khan, the Dhu'l-Qadr governor of Fars, in a revolt against Shah Abbas I (Fasai, I, p. 124, ed. Rastgar, I, p. 434; for further details concerning this rebellion, see Eskandar Beg, I, pp. 418-26, 431-37, tr. Savory, II, pp. 595-611).

Like all nomads in Persia, the Farsimadan suffered greatly during the reign of Rezµa Shah Pahlavi (1304-20 ˆ./1925-41). His establishment of direct government rule and taxation, introduction of compulsory conscription, imposition of European dress, appointment of brutal and corrupt military governors to supervise tribal activity, and particularly his forced sedentarization policy, played havoc with the lives of the Farsimadan and their pastoral economy. As early as 1929, Masih Khan, the chief (kalantar) of the Farsimadan tribe, played a leading role in a major tribal uprising in Fars (Oberling, pp. 155-56). In 1933, Masih Khan and his eldest son, Aman-Allah Khan, were sent to Tehran and detained there. Masih Khan died shortly thereafter, presumably of natural causes (Oberling, p. 166). Meanwhile, as a consequence of Rezµa Shah's forced sedentarization policy, the Farsimadan temporarily abandoned their nomadic way of life. About a thousand families of them settled down in the tribe's summer quarters and the remainder of them settled down in the tribe's winter quarters. In 1937, the Farsimadan lost many of their animals when they were forced to leave their flocks in the district of Kamfiruz (Magee, p. 54). Upon the abdication of Rezµa Shah in 1941, the Farsimadan resumed their nomadic existence, and they have managed to retain their traditional way of life ever since (Komisiun-e melli, I, p. 147; Afshar Sistani, p. 628). A new period of hardship started in 1980, when, following the Revolution of 1978, the Revolutionary Guards launched a campaign against the nomadic tribes of Fars (Beck, p. 331).

The Farsimadan tribe contains the following tiras, or clans: Qara Mir ˆamlu, T®awabe, Awlad (the tira of the chief), Koranlu, Doganlu, Kalbelu (i.e., Kalb-Alilu), ˆeybanlu, Amala, Qasemlu, Gorjai (Georgians), Morol (Mogol), Machanlu, Musellu, Z®ohrablu, and Yandranlu (Oberling, p. 228). Its summer quarters are north and northeast of the Kuh-e Dena range, halfway between Behbahan and Abada. Its winter quarters are between Lake Famur and the Kuh-e Gisakan range, south of Kazerun (Oberling, p. 228).

The population of the Farsimadan was estimated by Aman-Allah Khan Farsimadan at 1,750 families in 1956 (Oberling, p. 228), by Komisiun-e melli (p. 147) at 1,505 families in 1963, and by Afshar Sistani (p. 628) at 2,715 families, or 12,394 individuals, in 1982.
See also AFGHANISTAN iv.

Bibliography (for cited works not given in detail, see "Short References"):
I. Afshar Sistani, Ilha, chadorneshinan, wa tÂawayef-e ashayeri-e Iran, 2 vols., Tehran, 1366 ˆ./1987.
L. Beck, The Qashqai of Iran, New Haven, 1986.
G. Demorgny, "Les re‚formes administratives en Perse: Les tribus du Fars," RMM 22, 1913, pp. 98-99.
H. Field, Contributions to the Anthropology of Iran, Chicago, 1939, p. 220.
O. Garrod, "The Qashqai Tribe of Fars," Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 33, 1946, pp. 293-306.
Kayhan, Jografia II, p. 79. Komisiun-e melli-e Yunesko (UNESCO) dar Iran, Iran-shahr, 2 vols., Tehran, 1343 ˆ./1964.
G. F. Magee, The Tribes of Fars, Simla, 1945.
P. Oberling, The Qashqai Nomads of Fars, The Hague, 1974.



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